THERAPEUTIC INDICATIONS: Pyrantel is specifically indicated for the treatment of infections caused by any of the following gastrointestinal parasites, both when they are isolated as in mixed infections:
Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm).
Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm).
Ancylostoma duodenale (hookworm).
Necator americanus (hookworm).
Trichostrongylus colubriformis and T. orientalis.
Pyrantel be used in the treatment of infestations by one or more of the parasites listed in both adults and children. It is well tolerated and does not stain the oral mucosa after ingestion, or clothing contamination with feces.
The presence of infection by any of the five parasites in a family member or a group of people living together may indicate infestation unidentified other members. In these circumstances, we recommend the administration of pyrantel to all members of the family or group of people. (A careful cleaning of rooms and clothes to destroy the eggs of helminths help in preventing reinfestation).
Pharmacokinetics in Humans:
Pharmacodynamics: Pyrantel is an anthelmintic agent highly effective against infections caused by pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis), worms (Ascaris lumbricoides), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) and Trichostrongylus colubriformis and T. orientalis.
Pyrantel has some activity against whipworm (Trichuris trichiura).
Pyrantel has a neuromuscular blocking effect on the parasites sensitive to it. By its action, pyrantel immobilized roundworms, leading to its elimination without causing excitement or stimulating the migration of the parasites concerned.
Within the gastrointestinal tract, pyrantel is effective against immature worms susceptible. Normal migratory stages of helminths are not affected.
Pharmacokinetics Pyrantel is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After a single dose of pyrantel 11 mg / kg, reaching peak plasma concentrations of 50-130 ng / ml in 1-3 hours. After oral administration, more than 50% is excreted in the feces without undergoing any change. Less than 7% is recovered in the urine as unchanged so as metabolites.
CONTRAINDICATIONS: Pyrantel is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or any of its inactive ingredients.
PRECAUTIONS: Pyrantel should be used with caution in patients with preexisting liver dysfunction, as there have been small transient elevations of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) in a small percentage of patients.
Effects on ability to drive or operate machinery: No we have studied the effect of pyrantel on ability to drive or operate machinery. There is no evidence to suggest that the pyrantel pamoate may affect these abilities.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation
Use in pregnancy: Although animal reproduction studies have not shown teratogenic effects, has not studied the effect of pyrantel in pregnant patients. According to the above, pyrantel should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the patient and fetus.
Lactation: It is not known if pyrantel is excreted in human milk. Breastfeeding should be discontinued if the doctor judges that their use is essential for the patient.
ADVERSE REACTIONS: Clinical experience has shown that pyrantel is quite well tolerated. Side effects, if any come to appear, usually gastrointestinal in nature.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: anorexia.
Nervous system disorders: Dizziness, drowsiness and headache.
Psychiatric Disorders: Insomnia.
Disorders of the skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: cold sweats, hot sweats, rash, pruritus, urticaria.
DRUG INTERACTIONS AND OTHER GENDER:
Piperazine: The anthelmintic effect of Pyrantel and piperazine can be antagonized when used concomitantly.
CHANGES IN RESULTS OF LABORATORY TESTS: See PRECAUTIONS.
PRECAUTIONS IN RELATION TO EFFECTS OF CARCINOGENESIS, MUTAGENESIS, Impairment of Fertility:
Chronic toxicity: Groups of 60 rats received daily doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg / kg daily pyrantel for a period of 13 weeks. There were no macroscopic or microscopic changes attributable to pyrantel.
Doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg / kg of body weight per day, pyrantel pamoate to dogs for a period of 13 weeks. We found elevations of transaminases in 5 dogs after 13 weeks. Mild lymphocytosis was observed apparently related to the dose in 5 dogs after 13 weeks of administration. There were no histopathological changes attributable to the drug.
Teratogenicity: There were no effects on fertility, reproduction, organogenesis, childbirth or lactation in rats, no effects on organogenesis in rabbits given a dose of pyrantel 25 or 250 mg / kg.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The recommended dose of pyrantel in the treatment of infestations by Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis and T. orientalis, is 10 mg of base per kilogram (maximum dose of 1 g) in a single oral administration.